Fog Silicone

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$9.95
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$11.61
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$16.99
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$16.99
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$16.99
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$16.99
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$200.00
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$7.99
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$8.99
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$11.49
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$28.40
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$16.99
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$16.99
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$16.99
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$16.99
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$15.74
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$25.34
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$20.99
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$14.16
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$134.99
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$117.72
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$6.74
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$24.99
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$17.56
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$12.00
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$8.99
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$14.33
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$14.43
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$15.78
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$17.11
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$4.95
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2 pack Kid Swim Goggles UShake Anti fog Lens Soft Silicone Frame Child Swimming
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$9.49
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$4.99
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$4.99
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$4.99
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$8.00
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Aegend Silicone Racing Swim Goggles Anti fog UV Protection No Leaking for Men
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$13.12
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$7.00
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$7.00
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$9.99
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Scuba Snorkeling Diving Anti Fog Glass Silicone Mask with Protective Case
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$29.95
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Kids Silicone Scuba Swimming Swim Diving Mask Snorkel Glasses Set Anti Fog Goggl
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$15.86
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Mirrored Swimming Goggles Anti Fog Shatterproof UV Protection Silicone Nose Clip
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$15.30
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IPRee Silicone Full Dry Diving Face Mask Snorkeling Goggles Anti Fog Blue S M
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$42.95
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$29.99
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$60.00
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$12.99
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$19.99
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$19.99
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Anti Fog Silicone Double Strap Competition Racing Swimming Swim Goggle New
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$19.99
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Kids Child Swim Goggle Ushake Anti Fog Uv Protection Soft Silicone Frame Kid Ch
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$16.11
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$16.11
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Kids Silicone Scuba Swimming Swim Diving Mask Snorkel Glasses Set Anti Fog
kids silicone scuba swimming swim diving mask snorkel glasses set anti fog
$28.70
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Anti Fog Adult Swimming Goggles Waterproof Swim Cap Hat Premium Silicone Set
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$4.05
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Neo Flex Adult swim dive goggles Dolfino mirrored lens anti fog silicon strap
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$8.99
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Swimming Goggles Silicone Cap No Leaking Anti Fog Protection Swim Sports Outdoor
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$28.76
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Anti Fog Anti UV Swimming Goggles Silicone Glasses for Kids Adults Explorer
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$2.31
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Shark Gear SeaFin Silicone Padded Mask Anti fog 180 Viewing
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$49.99
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Swimming GogglesAnti Fog Shatterproof UV ProtectionNo Leaking with Silicone
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$19.99
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Aegend Silicone Racing Swim Goggles Anti fog UV Protection No Leaking for Men
aegend silicone racing swim goggles anti fog uv protection no leaking for men
$19.99
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Kids Child Swim Goggle UShake Anti fog UV Protection Soft Silicone Frame Kid
kids child swim goggle ushake anti fog uv protection soft silicone frame kid
$18.53
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Dombo Swim Goggles Silicone Swim Cap Swimming Goggles No Leaking Anti Fog UV
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$35.70
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Swimming Google NonoUV 2 Pack Unisex Silicone Racing Swim Goggles Anti fog UV
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$17.52
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Surf Club Easy Fit Swim Goggles Black Color Adult Silicone Anti Fog PC Lens
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$7.99
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Otter Anti fog Soft Silicone Strar  Gasket UV Protection Swimming Goggles
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$29.99
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Swim Goggles Anti Fog No Leaking UV Protection Bundle with Silicone Swim Cap
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$17.83
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Bestway Hydro Pro Silicone Blue Tint Swim Goggles UV Protection Anti Fog New
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$10.95
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Bestway Hydro Pro Silicone Grey Tinted Swim Goggles UV Protection Anti Fog New
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$10.95
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Ipow Adults Silicone Swim Cap and Anti fog Goggles Mask Waterproof Mirrored Seal
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$11.98
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Kid Swim Goggles UShake Anti fog Lens Soft Silicone Frame Child Swimming Goggle
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$12.01
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Bestway Hydro Pro Swimming Goggles Silicone UV Protectant  Anti Fog NEW
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$10.99
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Bestway Hydro Pro Swimming Goggles Silicone UV Protectant  Anti Fog NEW
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$10.99
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UShake Racing Swim GogglesAnti Fog Swimming Goggles for Adult with Soft Silicon
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$12.95
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UShake Racing Swim GogglesAnti Fog Swimming Goggles for Adult with Soft Silicon
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$12.95
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Swim Goggles Conjoined Earplugs Anti fog Hot Silicone New Protection Kids
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$8.24
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Kid Swim Goggles UShake Anti fog Lens Soft Silicone Frame Child Swimming Gogg
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$12.80
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Swimming Google NonoUV 2 Pack Unisex Silicone Racing Swim Goggles Anti fog UV
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$19.87
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Swimming Goggles No Leaking Anti Fog Shatterproof UV Protection with Silicone
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$7.70
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$12.75
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Peacoco Swim GogglesSwimming Goggles Anti Fog UV Protection with Silicone Swim
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$20.33
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$16.75
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$16.75
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Kid Swim Goggles UShake Anti fog Lens Soft Silicone Frame Child Swimming Goggle
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$11.45
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Diving Mask Scuba Snorkelling Anti Fog Glass Leak Proof Silicone Black Yellow
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$39.00
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Kids Silicone Scuba Swimming Swim Diving Mask Snorkel Glasses Set Anti Fog
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$18.39
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Adult Recreational Mask With Anti Fog Coating Polycarbonate Lens Silicone Skirt
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$26.90
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9LED 2x Car Lamp Whit Bright Driving Day Light Head Daytime Running Silicone DRL
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$21.59
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9 LED 2x Car Bright Driving Day Light Head Daytime Running Silicone DRL Lamp Kit
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Silicone Gel w Projector Lens 12 LED Daytime Running Light DRL Kit Fog Day Lamp
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Fog Silicone

See More About:    Paddle Oar        Type Vii        Led Long        
2005-2011 Toyota Tacoma Ultimate fog lights wiring Jobs vs. Road Salt.

Reducing silicone surfactant emissions in automotive flexible molded foam.

Numerous emissions specifications exist in the
automotive industry

 today, and while these specifications still vary significantly by
geographic region, a global trend towards emissions reduction is
evident. The focus on emissions is important to the polyurethane
industry and the automotive
OEM

 since numerous production and
end-product performance issues can be linked to foam emissions. Some of
these include production safety, foam odor, windshield fogging and
volatile organic compounds (VOC).

While many components in
polyurethane foam

 can be responsible for
emissions,
amine
 : see under amino group.


amine

Any of a class of nitrogen-containing organic compounds derived, either in principle or in practice, from ammonia (NH3).
 catalysts and silicone surfactants are commonly
targeted substances. Under the influence of high temperatures, such as
those seen in the interior cabin of an automobile, conventional amines
and surfactants can
volatilize
  
intr. & tr.v. vol·a·til·ized, vol·a·til·iz·ing, vol·a·til·iz·es
1. To become or make volatile.

2. To evaporate or cause to evaporate.
, leading to poor cabin air quality and
the degradation of interior plastic components. Furthermore, volatile
species can
condense
  
v. con·densed, con·dens·ing, con·dens·es

v.tr.
1. To reduce the volume or compass of.

2. To make more concise; abridge or shorten.

3. Physics
a.
 on windows and the windscreen (FOG).

As a leading specialty additives supplier to the polyurethane
industry, Air Products and Chemicals has focused research efforts over
the past two decades on the development of reduced emission or
completely non-emissive catalysts to meet the constantly evolving needs
of the automotive industry (ref. 1). This article introduces innovative
new silicone
surfactant
 Definition

Surfactant is a complex naturally occurring substance made of six lipids (fats) and four proteins that is produced in the lungs. It can also be manufactured synthetically.
 technology developed to offer significant
emissions reductions without compromising the physical properties or
processing of the polyurethane foam. These new products enable
automotive foam manufacturers to meet a wide range of OEM emission
specifications.

Many approaches can be employed to achieve reduced emission
silicone surfactants.
Siloxane
 /si·lox·ane/ () any of various compounds based on a substituted backbone of alternating silica and oxygen molecules; in polymeric form they are polysiloxanes, and when the side chain substituents are organic radicals,
 emissions, for example, can be reduced
through careful design of highly active silicones which enable a
decrease in the overall use-level in the final foam formulation. Another
approach is to functionalize the silicone to render the species reactive
towards isocyanates, establishing the silicone as non-emissive. Carrier
selection is also critical in order to optimize the surfactant emissions
profile. Performance based carriers which successfully
solubilize

v.
To make substances such as fats soluble in water by the action of a detergent or similar agent.
 and
compatibilize the active silicone, while reacting in the final foam
matrix, help to further decrease the foam's emissions profile.

In the manufacture of TDI-rich flexible molded foam, the majority
of the industry utilizes two silicone surfactants to enable greater
formulating latitude across foam grades and densities. A bulk
stabilizing surfactant, such as the industry standard Dabco DC5164, and
a cell regulating surfactant, such as the highly adopted Dabco DC5179,
are used together to create foams with a fine and open cell structure,
excellent surface appearance and good in-mold flowability. This article
introduces two new surfactants which offer the same excellent foam
properties and processing as these conventional surfactants, while
reducing foam emissions by 50-60% versus industry standards. Dabco
SI1301 was developed as a reduced emission drop-in replacement for Dabco
DC5179, while the experimental XF-AA15004 offers a high-quality reduced
emission alternative to Dabco DC5164.

MDI

 foam manufacturers typically only require one surfactant to
improve foam surface appearance and eliminate basal cell formation under
the skin of the molded foam product. Dabco DC2525 is a product utilized
in the market today to meet European OEM specifications. The next
generation Dabco SI1101, however, offers even further emissions
reductions versus the incumbent product, enabling the most stringent
specifications to now be met without compromising foam processing or
performance.

The reduced emission Dabco SI1301, Dabco SI1101 and the
experimental XF-AA15004, which are discussed herein, now enable
automotive foam manufacturers to meet a wide range of OEM specifications
across
isocyanate

n.
Any of a family of nitrogenous chemicals that are used in industry and can cause respiratory disorders, especially asthma, if inhaled.
 type, foam grade and density.

Raw materials

Standard MDI, as well as TDI/MDI based formulations, were utilized
to generate the high-pressure machine produced foams discussed in this
article. The following is a list of the raw materials utilized:

* Dabco 33LX--33 wt. % triethylene
diamine
  
n.
Any of various chemical compounds containing two amino groups, especially hydrazine.

Noun 1. diamine - any organic compound containing two amino groups
 (
TEDA

TEDA Terrace Economic Development Authority
TEDA Texas Educational Diagnosticians Association
) in a proprietary
carrier from Air Products and Chemicals.

* Dabco BLX-11--70 wt. % bis(dimethylamino-ethyl) ether in a
proprietary carrier from Air Products and Chemicals.

* Dabco NE1070--non-emissive gelling catalyst from Air Products and
Chemicals.

* Dabco NE300--non-emissive blowing catalyst from Air Products and
Chemicals.

* Polyol A--conventional 5500 MW
polyether
  
n.
A polymer in which the repeating unit contains two carbon atoms linked by an oxygen atom.
 polyol with OH# of 32.

* Polyol B--SAN
copolymer
 see polymer.
 (43% solids) molded polyol with OH# of
28.

* Polyol C--conventional polyol with an OH# of 28.

* Polyol D--cell opening polyether polyol with an OH# of 33.

* Dabco DC5164--Bulk stabilizing surfactant for
TDI

 and TDI/MDI
molded foam from Air Products and Chemicals.

* Dabco DC5179--cell regulating surfactant for TDI and TDI/MDI
molded foam from Air Products and Chemicals.

* Dabco DC2525--low emission cell regulating surfactant for MDI
molded foam from Air Products and Chemicals.

* Dabco SI 1101--ultra low emission cell regulating surfactant for
MDI molded foam applications from Air Products and Chemicals.

* Dabco SI1301--reduced emission surfactant for TDI and TDI/MDI
molded foam applications from Air Products and Chemicals.

* XF-AA 15004--experimental reduced emission surfactant for TDI and
TDI/MDI molded foam applications from Air Products and Chemicals.

* Dabco DEOA-LF--diethanolamine with 15% water from Air Products
and Chemicals.

* TDI/MDI isocyanate--an 80/20 blend of TDI and
polymeric
 /poly·mer·ic/ () exhibiting the characteristics of a polymer.


adj.
1. Having the properties of a polymer.

2.
 MDI
isocyanates.

* MDI isocyanate--a modified
isomer
 , in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds.
 blend of diphenylmethane
diisocyanate (32.5%
NCO

abbr.
noncommissioned officer


 noncommissioned officer

 n abbr (Mil) (= noncommissioned officer) →  
).

TDI/MDI molded foam evaluations

Experimental procedures

Technical work related to the development of the new reduced
emission silicone surfactants for TDI/MDI molded foam was conducted in
our
North American

 technical center. An isocyanate blend comprising 80%
TDI and 20% MDI was selected for these surfactant trials, as it
represents one of the most prevalent isocyanate systems utilized in the
North American flexible molded industry today. A 32 kg/[m.sup.3] density
foam containing 9% solids was utilized to compare performance attributes
of two new reduced emission silicone surfactants, including Dabco

SII

SII Seiko Instruments, Inc.
SII Strong Interest Inventory
SII Standards Institution of Israel
SII Securities and Investment Institute  
301, a cell regulator, and XF-AA15004, a bulk stabilizer, versus
existing industry standard surfactants.

Machine evaluations

Machine trials for flexible molded foams were conducted on a Hi
Tech SureShot MHR-50 high-pressure pilot machine. For each formulation,
a
premix

 consisting of the appropriate polyols, water, crosslinker,
surfactants and catalysts was charged to the machine. The TDI/MDI
isocyanate blend was charged into the second tank. Material temperatures
were held at 23 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C. Foams were dispensed into heated
aluminum molds maintained at 63 + 2[degrees]C. The mold, with internal
dimensions of 40.6 cm x 40.6 cm x 10.2 cm, contained five vents and was
designed as a tool for physical property evaluation. A solvent-based
release agent was applied to the mold prior to each pour and allowed to
dry for one minute. The foaming mixture was puddle-poured into the
center of the mold with a wet chemical charge weight capable of
completely filling the mold and achieving the desired core density.
Foams were de-molded after four minutes and were either mechanically
crashed, or measured immediately for force-to-crush (
FTC

See Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
), as described
below.

Foam physical property evaluations

Foams produced for physical testing were mechanically crushed one
minute after de-mold using a roller crusher set to a gap of 2.54 cm.
Crushing was conducted three times on each part, rotating the foam 90
degrees after each pass. Pads were then allowed to condition for at
least seven days in a constant temperature and humidity room (23 +
2[degrees]C, 50 [+ or -] 2%
relative humidity

n.
The ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air at a specific temperature to the maximum amount that the air could hold at that temperature, expressed as a percentage.
). Five test specimens were
die-cut from each pad and evaluated for physical properties
according to

prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of:

2. In keeping with:

3.
 
ASTM

abbr.
American Society for Testing and Materials
 D-3574. The results from these tests, including standard deviations
where applicable, are presented in table 2.

Force to crush measurements

The
dimensional stability

n See stability, dimensional.
 of freshly de-molded foam can be assessed
by measuring the force-to-crush (FTC) of the pad. A dimensionally stable
foam will exhibit little or no tendency to shrink after de-mold. Poor
dimensional stability can result in numerous defects of the polyurethane
article, such as lack of fit of a polyurethane piece to the substrate,
which can lead to increased repair and/or scrap rates.

To determine FTC, a foam pad was inserted into the FTC apparatus
within thirty seconds of the de-mold time. The force detection device
was equipped with a 2.2 kg capacity
pressure transducer

An instrument component which detects a fluid pressure and produces an electrical, mechanical, or pneumatic signal related to the pressure.
 mounted between
the 323 [cm.sup.2] circular plate cross head and the
drive shaft
 also drive·shaft
n.
A rotating shaft that transmits mechanical power from a motor or an engine to a point or region of application.
. Pads
were compressed to 50% of their original thickness, and the force
required to achieve this deformation was recorded. Ten compression
cycles were completed on each foam. The recorded force provides
numerical insight into the openness of the foam's cell structure;
lower FTC, therefore, signals improved dimensional stability.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Thermal desorption

 studies

Thermal desorption method VDA 278 is a standard polyurethane foam
emission test method used in the automotive industry to evaluate
volatile organic content (VOC) emissions and windshield fogging (FOG)
emissions from polyurethane foam under aggressive conditions (ref. 2).
In a dynamic
headspace
  
n.
The volume left at the top of an almost filled jar, tin, or other container before sealing.

Noun 1. headspace - the volume left at the top of a filled container (bottle or jar or tin) before sealing
 experiment, gas extraction is carried out
continuously to remove all volatile components from the foam sample in a
closed system.

The VDA 278 method consists of two steps. In the first step, the
foam sample is put into a thermal desorption tube that is continuously
flushed with an
inert gas
 or  any of the elements in Group 18 of the periodic table. In order of increasing atomic number they are: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon.
 for 30 minutes at 90[degrees]C. The volatile
emissions released from the foam are collected in a cryogenic trap
cooled to -150[degrees]C. At the end of the required time, the trapped
residue is heated to 280[degrees]C and directly injected into a GC-MS
analyzer and measured. The second step of the VDA 278 test consists of
measuring the
condensable
  
v. con·densed, con·dens·ing, con·dens·es

v.tr.
1. To reduce the volume or compass of.

2. To make more concise; abridge or shorten.

3. Physics
a.
 emissions that are responsible for windshield
fogging. The same foam sample used for the VOC measurement is re-heated
to 120[degrees]C, and inert gas is passed through the sample for 60
minutes. The volatiles again are condensed in a cryogenic trap and
analyzed by GC-MS. Results for both VOC and FOG emissions represent the
amount of emitted species per gram of foam sample, and are reported in
lag/g or
parts per million

 (ppm). A schematic of this procedure is
presented in figure 1.

Gravimetric/photometric fogging test

The SAE J1756-06 test was also performed to quantify the FOG
emissions of the new low emission silicone surfactants and the incumbent
industry standard surfactants (ref. 3). This method, which is frequently
utilized in the North American automotive market, is entitled,
"Test procedure to determine the fogging characteristics of
interior automotive materials." It describes two methods for
determining the tendency of interior materials used in automobiles to
(a) produce a measurable deposit (mass) on
aluminum foil

 or (b) produce
a light scattering deposit on a glass surface. In each version, a sample
of the material to be tested is placed in a beaker. The beaker is sealed
with a cooling plate and immersed in a hot oil bath at 100[degrees]C for
16 hours. Material emanating from the test species condenses on the
cooling plate and is analyzed.

In the gravimetric version of SAE J1756-06, the cooling plate is
weighed before and after the test, allowing for quantification of the
mass of
condensate
 matter in the form of a gas of atoms, molecules, or elementary particles that have been so chilled that their motion is virtually halted and as a consequence they lose their separate identities and merge into a single entity.
. The less material collected, the better the foam
performance.

In the
photometric
  
n.
Measurement of the properties of light, especially luminous intensity.



photo·met
 version, a FOG number is calculated by taking
the
quotient

 of the 60 degree
reflectance
  
n.
The ratio of the total amount of radiation, as of light, reflected by a surface to the total amount of radiation incident on the surface.

Noun 1.
 value of a glass plate with
fogging deposits and the 60 degree reflectance of the same glass plate
without fogging deposits and multiplying by one hundred. The closer the
number is to 100, the less FOG. The type of deposits on the glass are
also recorded as either wet or dry, with dry deposits being the
preferred result.

Results and discussion

Formulations

Table 1 shows the foam formulations utilized in the 32 kg/[m.sup.3]
TDI/MDI machine evaluations. Formulation A, the control, is based on two
industry standard silicone surfactants offered by Air Products,
including Dabco DC5179, an efficient cell regulator, and Dabco DC5164, a
strong bulk stabilizer. Formulation B offers a performance comparison of
the new reduced emission cell regulator, Dabco SII301, versus the
conventional surfactant, Dabco DC5179. Formulation C offers a comparison
of the reduced emission experimental bulk stabilizer, XF-AAI5004, versus
Dabco DC5164. Finally, formulation D combines the two reduced emission
silicone surfactants, highlighting the most significant emission
reduction in foam control Formulation A. An isocyanate index of 95 was
utilized for each of the four formulations. Each foam contained a
moderate amount of solids (9%) based on copolymer polyol content.

Foam made from Formulations A-D on the pilot machine were analyzed
for physical properties, cell structure and foam appearance, dimensional
stability (FTC) and overall emissions profile.

Physical properties

The physical properties from Formulations A-D are presented in
table 2. Foams based on Formulation A, containing the conventional
surfactant package, offer good physical properties, a consistent and
fine cell structure, and excellent foam surface appearance. Formulation
B demonstrates the ability of the reduced emission cell regulator, Dabco
SI 1301, to function as a drop-in replacement for the conventional
surfactant, Dabco DC5179. Foam hardness, ball rebound,
tensile strength

 and elongation in Formulation B were identical to those in Formulation
A. Ambient as well as humid aged compression sets were also equivalent
to the control. Furthermore, the same fine cell structure and excellent
surface quality generated by the incumbent silicone surfactant was also
generated in foams made with Dabco SI1301.

The ability of the reduced emission bulk stabilizer, XFAAI5004, to
function as a drop-in replacement for the conventional surfactant, Dabco
DC5164, can be seen by comparing Formulation C with Formulation A. At
the same use-level, XF-AA15004 offers nearly identical physical
properties as the control, including foam hardness, tensile, elongation
and compression set. Airflow was slightly higher in Formulation C,
emphasizing the excellent open cell structure and dimensional stability
offered by the experimental surfactant.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Finally, Formulation D shows that Dabco SI1301 and XF-AA15004 can
be utilized together to achieve similar foam physical properties as the
conventional surfactant package. As anticipated, airflow,
foam cell

n.
A cell containing lipids in small vacuoles, as seen in leprosy and xanthoma, often a histiocyte.
 structure and surface appearance, hardness, ball rebound and compression
sets were all identical to those seen with the conventional surfactants
in Formulation A.

These physical property results highlight that in TDI/MDI molded
foams, Dabco SI1301 and XF-AA15004 can be utilized effectively to match
the high quality physical properties and foam quality generated with the
industry standard silicones, Dabco DC5179 and Dabco DC5164. While not
presented herein, the ability of these products to function across a
broad range of densities and solids levels was confirmed in our labs.

Force to crush (FTC) performance

As discussed above, foam dimensional stability, a property that is
highly impacted by choice of silicone surfactant, is critical in the
manufacture of flexible molded foam. Figure 2 shows a comparison of the
FTC performance of the reduced emission Dabco SI 1301 and XF-AA15004
versus the industry cell regulators and bulk stabilizers used today.
Each of the curves shows nearly identical FTC curves, suggesting that
the same good balance of cell openness and matrix stability found in
foam made with the conventional surfactants is maintained in foam made
with the reduced emission products. Only Formulation B shows a slight
deviation from the other curves towards higher FTC values. Considering
that the airflow values shown in table 2 are identical for Formulations
A and B, however, we interpret this deviation as being within
experimental error of the FTC measurement.

TDI/MDI thermal desorption emissions results

Thermal desorption measurements according to the VDA 278 method
were conducted by the Fresenius Institute in Germany (ref. 2). Total VOC
and FOG emissions in parts per million (ppm), as well as the specific
contribution of siloxanes to the VOC and FOG emissions, are quantified
in table 3.

Formulation A, the control, exhibits a total VOC value of 1,335
ppm, and 307 ppm of siloxane emissions in the VOC. Total FOG values for
Formulation A measured 327 ppm with 11 ppm attributable to siloxanes. If
we consider Formulation B, which shows the impact of using Dabco SI1301
as an alternative to Dabco DC5179, we find that foam made with the
reduced emission cell regulator emits only 719 ppm of total VOC, 191 ppm
of which is attributable to siloxanes. This equates to a total VOC
reduction of 46% and a siloxane VOC emissions reduction of 38% when
Dabco SI1301 is utilized as a drop-in replacement for Dabco DC5179. The
significant reduction seen is the result of the new low emission
carrier, as well as the high performance active silicone selected for
Dabco S11301. FOG values are also positively impacted by the switch to
Dabco SI1301. A 35% decrease in total FOG was recorded for Formulation B
versus Formulation A, while the contributions of siloxanes to FOG
emissions remained fairly constant.

Turning our attention to the bulk stabilizer, a comparison of the
emissions performance of Formulation A versus Formulation C shows the
improvement in VOC and FOG achievable when XF-AA 15004 is utilized in
place of Dabco DC5164. The total VOC for Formulation C was decreased by
10% and siloxane contribution to VOC was decreased by 20% versus
Formulation A. Furthermore, total FOG was decreased by over 30%, with no
significant change in the siloxane FOG contribution. The most dramatic
reduction in emissions, however, is clearly seen when both reduced
emission surfactants are utilized together to replace the conventional
surfactant package. Formulation D boasts total VOC values of only 475
ppm with 136 ppm attributable to siloxanes. This is a 65% decrease in
total VOC and a 55% decrease in siloxane contribution versus the
conventional surfactant control foam. A near 50% reduction in total FOG
was also measured. These significant emissions reductions come from
judicious choice of the active silicone species, as well as careful
selection of the high performance carrier.

Gravimetric and photometric fogging

The FOG data comparison for Dabco SI1301 and XF-AA15004 is shown in
table 4. While the VDA 278 method is considered by many to be most
relevant for European OEMs, gravimetric fogging is frequently specified
by North American OEMs. Both gravimetric and photometric test methods
were employed herein. Values shown are the averages of three
measurements. Testing was performed by a third party laboratory.

For the gravimetric portion of the method, we see that Formulation
A, the control, emitted 0.75 mg of condensate from the foam sample.
Formulations B and C show the condensate weights when the reduced
emission cell regulator and bulk stabilizer were used to replace the
conventional surfactants, Dabco DC5179 and Dabco DC5164, respectively.
Finally, Formulation D shows how the combination of Dabco SI1301 and
XF-AA 15004 together reduces the gravimetric FOG condensate to 0.30 mg,
a 60% reduction versus the conventional surfactant control.

For the photometric portion of the method, recall that a %

reflectivity
  
n. pl. re·flec·tiv·i·ties
1. The quality of being reflective.

2. The ability to reflect.

3.
 closer to 100 is the preferred result. While the
conventional surfactant package shows a FOG number of 93, each of the
formulations utilizing the reduced emission surfactants shows increases
in FOG number, with Formulation D, which utilizes both reduced emission
products, showing the greatest performance improvements with a %
reflectivity of 99, and nearly no visible deposits on the cooling plate.

MDI molded foam evaluations

Experimental procedures

Experiments related to the development of the new ultra-low
emission MDI flexible molded foam surfactant, Dabco SI1101, were
conducted at our European technical center. An MDI isocyanate
representative of products utilized in the European flexible molded foam
industry was selected for the surfactant trials. MDI-based foams with a
density of 45 kg/[m.sup.3] were prepared using two different indices, 90
and 110; however, only the data from index equal to 90 are presented
herein. The goal of this study was to compare performance attributes of
the new ultra-low emission Dabco SI 1101 surfactant to those of the low
emission industry standard silicone, Dabco DC2525.

Machine evaluations

MDI flexible molded foams were prepared using a Krauss Maffei
RimStar modular 40/40 high pressure machine. Mixtures containing the
appropriate amounts of polyol, water, crosslinker, surfactants and
catalysts for each formulation were charged to the machine, and MDI was
used throughout the entire study. Raw materials were maintained at 23 [+
or -] 2[degrees]C and foaming mixtures were poured into an isothermally
controlled heated aluminum mold heated to 60 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C. The
mold utilized was the same as that described above for the TDI/MDI
studies. A solvent-based release agent was sprayed in the mold prior to
each pour and allowed to dry for one minute. Pads were de-molded after

three minutes

, and either mechanically crashed for physical property
testing, as described in the TDI/MDI section above, or tested for force
to crush.

Foam physical property evaluations

Foam physical properties were measured according to German OEM
specifications (ref. 4). Tensile, elongation and compression set were
measured according to DIN EN
ISO

 1798; tear strength was measured
according to ISO 8067/DIN 53356; and 50%
CLD

 was measured according to
ISO 2439. Before testing, each pad was conditioned in a constant
temperature and humidity room (23 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C, 50 [+ or -] 2%
relative humidity) for seven days. Five test specimens were die-cut from
each pad and evaluated for physical properties. Average values were
calculated using all results.

Force to crush measurements

Pads were removed from the mold, weighed and placed in the FTC
apparatus for measurement one minute after de-molding. The FTC was
measured with an Instron
testing machine

 using a circular plate with a
diameter of 20 cm. Pads were compressed to 50% of their original
thickness at a
crosshead
  
n.
A beam that connects the piston rod to the connecting rod of a reciprocating engine.

Noun 1. crosshead - a heading of a subsection printed within the body of the text
crossheading
 velocity of 380 mm per minute, and the highest
force during compression was recorded in Kilopascals. Five compression
cycles were completed for each pad. This device mimics the ASTM D-3574
standard, and provides a measurement that relates to the % closed cell
content before crushing (ref. 5).

Thermal desorption studies and gravimetric fogging

The methodology utilized for emissions quantification of the
MDI-based foams was the VDA 278 described above for TDI/ MDI foams.

Gravimetric fogging

Gravimetric fogging was measured in-house using the DIN 75201-R
Process "B" standard. A sample of foam was placed in a beaker
which is temperature controlled at 100[degrees]C
for 24 hours

. The
beaker is covered with
aluminium foil

 which has been previously
weighted. The amount of fogging condensation was determined by weighing
the foil again after the 24 hour test.

Results and discussion

Formulations

The experimental objective for developing a new ultra low emission
MDI surfactant was to offer a high performance next generation silicone
surfactant to enable foam manufacturers to meet the most stringent
European OEM specifications. Table 5 illustrates the formulations used
in this study to compare the performance of our current industry
standard low emission MDI silicone surfactant, Dabco DC2525, and the
ultra low emission silicone surfactant, Dabco SI1101. Formulations E and
F were utilized to produce flexible polyurethane foam material with a
free rise density of 41 kg/[m.sup.3] and a molded density of 45
kg/[m.sup.3].

Physical properties

The physical properties of MDI-based foams incorporating either the
industry standard low emission Dabco DC2525 or the ultra-low emission
Dabco SI1101 are compared in table 6. Formulation E generates excellent
physical properties, fine cell structure and a surface appearance free
from defects and basal cells. Formulation F offers nearly identical
physical properties and foam appearance as the incumbent technology.
Both products offer excellent physical property performance, as well as
airflow.

These results highlight that MDI foam made with Dabco SI1101 shows
excellent physical properties equivalent to those observed in foam
specimens made with Dabco DC2525. CLD, tensile and elongation are all
equivalent within experimental error. While not shown in this article,
physical properties for Formulations E and F were also made at an
isocyanate index of 110. These results also showed equivalent physical
property performance.

Force to crush (FTC) performance

Generation of an open cell structure is particularly important for
the dimensional stability of MDI-based molded foam systems. Figure 3
compares the force to crush values for Dabco DC2525 and Dabco SI1101 in
a standard foam system. Dabco SI1101, the new ultra low emission
silicone surfactant, shows the same excellent open cell structure as the
low emission Dabco DC2525, with a slight tendency towards more open
celled structure.

MDI molded foam emissions results

Thermal desorption evaluations according to VDA 278 were performed
on molded foam samples containing the low emission industry standard MDI
surfactant, Dabco DC2525, and the new ultra low emission Dabco SI1101.
Total VOC and total FOG, in addition to the siloxane contributions to
the VOC and FOG totals, are shown in table 7.

The results show that the incumbent surfactant already offers
formulators an excellent emissions profile. The foams from Formulation E
had total VOC levels of only 30 ppm, 26 ppm of which was attributable to
siloxane emissions. While the performance of Dabco DC2525 is already
outstanding, substitution of Dabco SI1101 for Dabco DC2525 reduces total
VOC levels to only 9 ppm. This decrease in VOC demonstrates how Dabco
SI1101 can be utilized advantageously to decrease siloxane emissions by
nearly 70% versus the control. The FOG profile of the new ultra-low
emission surfactant remains relatively unchanged versus the Dabco DC2525
product.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Gravimetric fogging

Although no significant differences in FOG emissions were noticed
in Formulations E and F when running the VDA 278 test method, the
gravimetric fogging test did show a discernable improvement in emissions
for Dabco SI1101 over the Dabco DC2525. As seen in table 8, the weight
of the deposits from Formulation F was approximately 20% less than that
seen in the control foam, Formulation E.

Conclusions

In recent years, the polyurethane industry has been moving towards
lower emission foam products in response to increasingly stringent
automotive OEM specifications. To address this market need, Air Products
and Chemicals has developed a family of reduced emission silicone
surfactants. Dabco SI1301, Dabco SI1101 and XF-AA15004 have been
developed to enable polyurethane foam manufacturers to lower their
overall emissions profile, while maintaining the same excellent physical
property performance, fine cell structure, excellent foam stability and
surface appearance seen with our existing conventional silicone
surfactants. These products help address important issues in the
industry such as VOCs, windshield fogging and worker/production safety.

For TDI/MDI flexible molded foam applications, we have shown that
Dabco SI1301 can be utilized effectively to reduce emissions by up to
45% compared to Dabco DC5179, while maintaining equivalent foam physical
properties, cell structure and surface appearance. The experimental bulk
stabilizer, XFAAI5004, can also be used as a drop-in replacement for
Dabco DC5164, and reduces emissions by 20-30% versus the incumbent
product. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the combination of the two
new reduced emission silicones can reduce emissions by nearly 65% versus
the conventional silicone surfactants, while maintaining excellent foam
properties and processing. For MDI-based systems, the use of Dabco
SI1101 as a drop-in replacement to Dabco DC2525 results in polyurethane
foam materials having a 70% decrease in VOC silicone emissions according
to VDA 278, and an improved gravimetric fogging profile.

With the broad spectrum of demands to improve comfort, durability,
processing, physical properties and reduction of emissions, Air Products
and Chemicals remains committed to developing innovative specialty
additives to help polyurethane manufacturers meet evolving industry
needs.

References

(1.) Burdeniuc, J.J., Tobias, J.K. and Wendel, S.H., Review of
Non-Emissive Additives' Technologies from Air Products and
Chemicals, The International Polyurethane Conference (
UTECH

) 2009.

(2.) Daimler-Chrysler Test Method PB
VWT

VWT Video Wave Thumbnail
 278: Work Specification
for Determination of Gas Forming and Condensation Emissions from
Automotive Interior Components by Thermodesorption.

(3.) SAE J1756-06 FOG Test Method. Test Procedure to Determine the
Fogging Characteristics of Interior Automotive Materials.

(4.) Volkswagen Test Method PV-3410 for Flexible Polyurethane Foam.

(5.) Herrington, R. and
Hock
 see wine.
, K., Dow Polyurethane Flexible Foams,
1997, pp. 11.16-11.18.

by Courtney T. Thurau and Allen R. Arnold, Air Products and
Chemicals, and Torsten Panitzsch, Air Products GmbH

Table 1--32 kg/[m.sup.3] TD/MDI molded seating
formulation--95 index

Formulation                 A       B       C       D
identifier
Polyol A, (pphp)            80      80      80      80
Polyol B, (pphp)            20      20      20      20
Dabco DEOA-LF, (pphp)      1.5     1.5     1.5     1.5
Dabco 33 LX, (pphp)       0.32    0.32    0.32    0.32
Dabco BLX-11, (pphp)      0.08    0.08    0.08    0.08
Total water, (pphp)        3.9     3.9     3.9     3.9
Dabco DC5179, (pphp)       0.6     --      0.6      --
Dabco DC5164, (pphp)       0.2     0.2      --      --
Dabco SI1301, (pphp)        --     0.6      --     0.6
XF-AA15004, (pphp)          --      --     0.2     0.2

Table 2--32 kg/m3 TD/MDI physical properties

Formulation                                    A                    B
identifier
Dabco DC5179, (pphp)                         0.6                   --
Dabco DC5164, (pphp)                         0.2                  0.2
Dabco S11301, (pphp)                          --                  0.6
XF-AA15004, (pphp)                            --                   --
Core density (kg/[m.sup.3])    32.1 [+ or -] 1.0    31.6 [+ or -] 0.7
Airflow [I/m]                  71.5 [+ or -] 2.3    70.5 [+ or -] 1.4
ILD
25% (N)                                       79                   81
65% (N)                                      284                  277
25% R (N)                                     68                   68
Support factor                               3.6                  3.4
Ball rebound, (%)                             62                   58
Tensile, (kPa)                104.8 [+ or -] 3.7   110.6 [+ or -] 5.4
Elongation, (%)                92.6 [+ or -] 4.9    91.9 [+ or -] 3.5
Tear, (N/m)                   165.2 [+ or -] 2.2   166.3 [+ or -] 6.9
50% compression set, (%)        5.3 [+ or -] 0.3     4.7 [+ or -] 0.3
50% Japanese wet set, (%)      31.3 [+ or -] 0.5    32.2 [+ or -] 1.6

Formulation                                    C                    D
identifier
Dabco DC5179, (pphp)                         0.6                   --
Dabco DC5164, (pphp)                          --                   --
Dabco S11301, (pphp)                          --                  0.6
XF-AA15004, (pphp)                           0.2                  0.2
Core density (kg/[m.sup.3])    31.6 [+ or -] 1.5    32.2 [+ or -] 0.6
Airflow [I/m]                  79.4 [+ or -] 1.6    83.1 [+ or -] 4.2
ILD
25% (N)                                       84                   91
65% (N)                                      272                  290
25% R (N)                                     71                   77
Support factor                               3.2                  3.2
Ball rebound, (%)                             56                   62
Tensile, (kPa)                103.4 [+ or -] 2.5   103.5 [+ or -] 3.3
Elongation, (%)                93.9 [+ or -] 2.3   103.5 [+ or -] 3.3
Tear, (N/m)                   169.8 [+ or -] 6.7   173.1 [+ or -] 2.6
50% compression set, (%)        4.6 [+ or -] 0.3     3.8 [+ or -] 0.8
50% Japanese wet set, (%)      28.8 [+ or -] 0.7    25.7 [+ or -] 1.1

Table 3--TDI/MDI emissions results--VDA
278 test method

Formulation                     A     B       C     D

Dabco DC5179, (pphp)          0.6    --     0.6    --
Dabco DC5164, (pphp)          0.2   0.2      --    --
Dabco S11301, (pphp)           --   0.6      --   0.6
XF-AA15004, (pphp)             --    --     0.2   0.2
VDA278 VOC results
Total VOC (ppm)             1,335   719   1,221   475
VOC, siloxane (ppm)           307   191     243   136
VDA278 FOG results
Total FOG (ppm)               327   216     225   168
FOG, siloxane (ppm)            11     7       4    11
Total emissions (VOC+FOG)   1,662   935   1,446   643
Total siloxanes (VOC+FOG)     318   198     247   147

Table 4--TDI/MDI gravimetric/reflectometric results--SAE
J1756-06 test method

Formulation                    A           B           C           D

Dabco DC5179, (pphp)         0.6          --         0.6          --
Dabco DC5164, (pphp)         0.2         0.2          --          --
Dabco S11301, (pphp)          --         0.6          --         0.6
XF-AA15004, (pphp)            --          --         0.2         0.2
Gravimetric method
Weight of FOG               0.75        0.35        0.75        0.30
  deposit (mg)
Photometric method
% reflectivity                93          99          96          99
Observations                 Dry         Dry         Dry         Dry
                       droplets,   droplets,   droplets,      almost
                                          no          no   clear, no
                                    crystals    crystals    crystals

Table 5--45 kg/[m.sup.3] MDI molded
seating formulation

Formulation               E     F
identifier

Polyol C, (pphp)        100   100
Polyol D, (pphp)        1.3   1.3
Dabco DEOA-LF, (pphp)   0.7   0.7
Dabco NE300, (pphp)     0.2   0.2
Dabco NE1070, (pphp)    0.9   0.9
Total water, (pphp)     3.7   3.7
Dabco DC2525, (pphp)    1.0    --
Dabco SI 1101, (pphp)    --   1.0
Isocyanate index         90    90

Table 6--45 kg/m3 MDI physical
properties--90 index

Formulation                              E                   F
identifier
Dabco DC2525, (pphp)                   1.0                  --
Dabco Sl1101, (pphp)                    --                 1.0
Free rise density                       41                  41
  (kg/[m.sup.3])
Molded density                          45                  45
  (kg/[m.sup.3])
CLD (kPa)                4.55 [+ or -] 0.2   4.93 [+ or -] 0.2
Tensile strength (kPa)    141 [+ or -] 1.5    139 [+ or -] 9.6
elongation                115 [+ or -] 1.2    103 [+ or -] 6.4

Table 7--MDI emissions results--VDA 278
test method

Formulation                      E     F

Dabco DC2525, (pphp)           1.0    --
Dabco Sl1101, (pphp)            --   1.0
VDA278 VOC results:
Total VOC (ppm)                 30     9
VOC, siloxane (ppm)             26     8
VDA278 FOG results:
Total FOG (ppm)                274   261
FOG, siloxane (ppm)             10    11
Total emissions (VOC + FOG)    304   270
Total siloxanes (VOC + FOG)     36    19

Table 8--MDI gravimetric fogging results
(DIN 75201 Process B)

Formulation                            E       F

Dabco DC2525, (pphp)                 1.0      --
Dabco S1 1101, (pphp)                 --     1.0
Gravimetric method
Weight of FOG deposit (mg/g foam)   0.20   0.158

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